Adventure tour of india is an elaborate and informative portal aimed at creating awareness about wildlife in India. It is an educative tool for children and an informative guide for wildlife enthusiasts. It aims at publicizing the importance of wildlife and conservation among the public in India.
India has a rich heritage of wildlife as well as a long history and tradition of conservation. India is also unique in the richness and variety of wildlife. There are about 350 species of mammals, 2000 species of birds, 500 species of reptiles, more than 25,000 insects and lesser forms, about 2500 species of fish and other marine creatures. In India, different animals are associated with different Gods and are thus provided with religious sanctity, which generally ensure conservation. All religions of ancient India provided respect for nature and exhorted people to conserve nature. The love and regard for wildlife is a part of Indian culture. But due to increase in population and demand for land for industrialization, hydro electro projects, urbanization and agriculture, the wildlife habitats and the forests are being destroyed.
Some of the species of wildlife, which are under threat of existence, are the Indian hunting cheetah, Royal Bengal tiger, the Asiatic lion, Hangul deer of Kashmir, Swamp deer, Black buck, etc. Among birds and reptiles pink headed duck, the mountain quail and Jerdon’s courser, Great Indian Bustard, Gangetic Gharial, Marsh mugger, and Estuarine Crocodile have all reached a point of near extinction. The main reaction for extinction is mainly imputed to man more specifically to man’s demographic and technological expansion. Some species have been wantonly destroyed as a part of commercial exploitation like the one horned Rhinoceros, Elephant, Musk deer, Tiger, etc.,
The Government of India and the State Governments are now becoming conscious of the deteriorating wildlife situation and have acted towards creating safer zones for the wildlife within the Reserve Forests by way of creating what are called ‘Protected Areas’. Protected area is a broad term given primarily to National Parks and Sanctuaries meant for affording protection to wild animals and their habitat. They also include game reserves and biosphere reserves.
The idea of creating protected areas for conserving and protecting wild animals and their habitat is not new to India. In ancient times also kings and other rulers set aside game reserves though these were meant mostly for hunting than for protecting wild animals. Even during the British period many rulers had shooting reserves, which were later, accorded the status of protected areas, e.g. Bharatpur National Park. The country’s first wildlife sanctuary was set up towards the close of the last century as the Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary in Tamilnadu. However the first National Park came into being only in 1936 with the setting up of the Hailey National Park in Uttar Pradesh. Later on, its name was changed to Ramganga National Park and at present it is called Corbett National Park.The Government of India have enacted a comprehensive legislature in 1972 called the Wildlife (Protection) Act for providing legal protection to the wildlife and to the endangered species of fauna in particular, as the protection of wild animals and birds and their habitat assumed national importance. Under the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, the State Governments are empowered to declare any area as a sanctuary or a National Park for the purpose of protecting, propagating, or developing wildlife and the environment. At present, there are 86 National Parks and 481 Wildlife Sancuaries together with an area of about 150,000 Sq Kms.
All National Parks and Sanctuaries are however not alike. Some of them have been created specifically to protect the rare and endangered species, notable among which are the Gir National Park for the Asiatic lion, Kaziranga National Park for the single horned Rhinoceros, Dachigam sanctuary for the Kashmir stag, Keibul Lamjo and the Brow antlered deer, Velavadar National Park and Point Calimer for the Black buck and special Tiger reserves. Some of National Parks are famous for the richness and variety of wildlife found in them. Amongst them the most well known are the Kanha National Park and the Corbett National Park.